Steskal Chiropractic, Omaha Nebraska

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Monday - Wednesday - Friday                                           Steskal Chiropractic

9:00AM to Noon                                                                 10615 Fort Street,

3:00-6:00 PM                                                                      Omaha, NE 68134

Get Directions -            1-402-496-9300






Article Index



This study has “harvested the best available evidence concerning the possible pathology of whiplash.”


The credibility of these injuries is enhanced because different lines of investigation, using totally independent methods, point to the same conclusion. “This constitutes convergent validity.”


“In the case of whiplash, postmortem studies, biomechanics studies, and clinical studies converge.”


“Postmortem studies point to lesions in the zygapophysial [facet] joints.”


“Biomechanical studies show how these joints can be injured to produce the lesions seen at mortem.”


“Clinical studies have shown that zygapophysial [facet] joint pain is common in patients with chronic neck pain after whiplash.”


“All three lines of investigation point to the same culprit,” the facet joint.




Chiropractic spinal adjusting (manipulation) affects the facet joints. As described by Canadian Orthopedic Surgeon and Professor, William Kirkaldy-Willis, MD (9):


“Spinal manipulation is essentially an assisted passive motion applied to the spinal apophyseal [facet] and sacroiliac joints.”


There are mechanical neurophysiological explanations as to how spinal manipulation inhibits pain. The most accepted of these involve the use of the Gate Theory by Ronald Melzack and Patrick Wall (10, 11), established more than 50 years ago. This Gate Theory has survived the test of time (12). As described by R. Kirkaldy-Willis (9):


Melzack and Wall proposed the Gate Theory of Pain in 1965, and this theory has “withstood rigorous scientific scrutiny.”


“The central transmission of pain can be blocked by increased proprioceptive input.” Pain is facilitated by “lack of proprioceptive input.” This is why it is important for “early mobilization to control pain after musculoskeletal injury.”


The facet capsules are densely populated with mechanoreceptors. “Increased proprioceptive input in the form of spinal mobility tends to decrease the central transmission of pain from adjacent spinal structures by closing the gate. Any therapy which induces motion into articular structures will help inhibit pain transmission by this means.”